Ben's Spot

Bible verses

Planning & Strategy
Genesis 11:6 (New International Version)
6 The LORD said, "If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.
Micah 2
Man's Plans and God's
1 Woe to those who plan iniquity,
to those who plot evil on their beds!
At morning's light they carry it out
because it is in their power to do it


"Now I exhort YOU, brothers, through the name of our Lord Jesus Christ that YOU should all speak in agreement, and that there should not be divisions among YOU, but that YOU may be fitly united in the same mind and in the same line of thought." - 1 Corinthians 1:10

Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their hard work. 10 For if one of them should fall, the other one can raise his partner up. But how will it be with just the one who falls when there is not another to raise him up? - Ecclesiastes 4:9,10

The Official Business Term Quotes & Citations

“A final point of disagreement is on whether the DA’s role should be rotated among group members or assumed by a single person or group permanently. If it is on a permanent basis, there is a risk of “domestication” of the DA and a reduction in effectiveness. The rotation of the DA’s role could be seen as a form of management training. Furthermore, the rotation could help to alleviate the pressure that caused the domestication effect.” (Ming, 1993, p. 3)

Ming, C. (1993). Devil’s advocacy as an aid to strategic decision-making. Singapore Management Review 15(1), 1-11. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from

"Groupthink refers to the tendency for cohesive groups to become so concerned about group solidarity that they fail to critically and realistically evaluate their decisions and antecedent assumptions. According to Janis, this potentially fatal flaw in group decision making occurs when certain antecedent conditions, in addition to moderate or high group cohesiveness, are present. As shown in Exhibit 1, Janis (1982b) classified these antecedent factors into two categories; structural faults of the organization' and provocative situational contexts.^ These two categories of antecedent factors, along with group cohesiveness, cause groupthink, which is manifested by eight symptoms.' These eight symptoms of groupthink in turn cause seven symptoms'* of defective decision making that lower the probability of successful outcomes." (Park, 1990, p. 229)

Park, W. (1990). A Review of Research on Groupthink. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 3(4), 229-245. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from

"Like Prentice (1987), the present studies suggest that psychological functions span the value-attitude-behavior system and that two primary functions are instrumental and expressive. The motivation underpinning the instrumental function of the value-attitude-behavior system is the desire to feel that one can competently and effectively control and manipulate the environment. As such, an object’s benefits to an individual holding an instrumental function are the object’s intrinsic qualities, means to an end, and ability to control the environment." (Allen & Ng & Wilson, 2002, p. 112)

1. Allen, M., & Ng, S., & Wilson, M. (2002).A functional approach to instrumental and terminal values and the value-attitude-behavior system of consumer choice. European Journal of Marketing 36(1/2), 111-135. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from

“Values have been defined in a variety of ways, although their abstract nature and endurance tend to be central to most definitions. Rokeach defines a value as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach 1973, p. 5).” (Shrum & McCarty & Loeffler, 1990, p. 610)

Shrum, L., & McCarty, J., & Loeffler, T. (1990).Individual differences in value stability: are we really tapping true values. Advances in Consumer Research 17(1), 609-615. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from

“A utilitarian framework is useful for analyzing business practices in a global setting. Bayesian rationality postulates are “inescapable criteria of rationality for policy decisions” and together with Pareto optimality requirements, necessitate a utilitarian ethics framework for examining ethical issues (Harsanyi, 1978).” (Bailey & Porter, 2008, p. 25)

Bailey, J., & Porter, J. (2008). Utilitarian Ethics and the Purposeful Creation of Dissatisfaction. Journal of Global Business Issues 2(1), 23-30. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from

”The notion that these two constructs formed bi-polar opposites, as

suggested by Hofstede (1980), has been questioned as research con ducted in

1991 found that an individual’s private and collective cognitions, were

stored in different memory locations thus constituting sep a rate cognitive

structures (Trafimow, et al., 1991). Further sup port for the multidimensionality

of the construct was posited by Triandis (1995) who pro -

posed that there were horizontal (emphasizing equality) and vertical

(emphasizing hierarchical) aspects to individualism and collectivism thus

forming four distinct cultural patterns; horizontal collectivism (HC), vertical collectivism (VC), horizontal individualism (H) and vertical individual -

ism (VI).” (White, 2005, p. 77)

1. White, C. (2005). Further support of the reliability and construct validity of the horizontal and vertical, individualism and collectivism Framework. Management Research News 28(1), 77-81. Retrieved August 21, 2008, from;jsessionid=B0D42A5CA5D5EFC5721138938247E224?contentType=Article&contentId=1463333

“The first informal internal source is the influence of coworkers. In some cases, information

transmitted through coworkers – via interaction or observation – may reflect

organizational realities more accurately than the messages transmitted through formal

sources. The second informal internal source is the organization’s culture.

Organizational culture consists of a set of values, norms, standards of behavior, and

common expectations that send messages to members about what goals they should

pursue and how they should behave to reach those goals (Jones and George, 2003). The

third informal internal source is the influence of organizational leadership and

management. Charismatic leaders in any organization typically help their subordinates

understand the organization’s values and vision and are able to communicate a plan for

achieving that vision (Burns, 1978).” (Herstein & Mitki & Jaffe, 2007, p. 488)

Herstein, R., & Mitki, Y., & Jaffe, E. (2007). From blueprint to implementation: Communicating corporate identity for the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 19(6), 485-491. Retrieved August 21, 2008, from;jsessionid=B0D42A5CA5D5EFC5721138938247E224?contentType=Article&contentId=1621003

“Yet, this strong position in the domestic market through the company-owned units that provide information and knowledge about the local environment, that enable to test the innovations and train the new franchisees, etc. could favor the internationalization process.” (Perrigot, 2008, p. 322)

Perrigot, R. (2008). The Impact of having both: franchised stores and company-owned stores within a same network on the internalization: empirical results from the United States and French franchising networks. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI) 6(*), 317-322. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from

“Although the importance of social hierarchies has been documented in empirical settings other than investment banking (see Podolny, Stuart, and Hannan [1996] on technology networks), more and more industries are in fact beginning to resemble the investment banking industry because the proliferation of strategic alliances and other interfirm relationships has made networks increasingly important aspects of competition (Gulati, Nohria, & Zaheer, 2000).” (Jensen, 2008, p. 741)

Jensen, M. (2008). The use of relational discrimination to manage market entry: when do social status and structural holes work against you? Academy of Management Journal 51(4), 723-741. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from

“It can show up in what's called a naked restraint of trade, where a joint venture is merely a disguised device to fix prices or allocate markets, where consumers are harmed by virtue of higher prices and less competition, or, in a more subtle example, where a joint venture, a restraint, created for purposes that are arguably pro-competitive, actually has harmful

consequences outside the functioning of the joint venture.” (Gulati, Nohria, & Zaheer, 2000, p. 554)

Gulati, Nohria, & Zaheer (2008). Panel discussion II: consumer issues. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law 13(4), 549-580. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from

“For accounting practice, our study indicates that employers should use a

“carrot not stick” approach when implementing responsibility accounting

systems. At first glance, incorporating state signal pay violates the controllability

principle, in that the state and state signal are independent of effort.

The reaction of loss-averse workers to violations of controllability is likely

to depend on the contract frame.” (Frederickson & Walker, 2005, p. 730)

Frederickson, J., & Walker, C. (2005). Carrot or stick? contract frame and use of decision-influencing information in a principal-agent setting. Journal of Accounting Research 43(5), 709-733. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from

“Most empirical investigation of the effect of empowerment on performance has been at

the job level, but within management theory, from McGregor’s (1960)

and Likert’s (1961) early work to contemporary approaches to human

resource management (e.g., Appelbaum et al., 2000; Pfeffer, 1994, 1998),

these effects are predicted to work through into performance gains at the

organizational level.” (Birdi, Clegg, Patterson, Robinson, Stride, Wall, & Wood, 2008, p. 471)

Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C., Wall, T., & Wood, S. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: a longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology 61(3), 467-501. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from

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