A Philosophy of Management

Biblical Integration

Management and Leadership

“The D.C. schools now have embarked on a new push at reform, with mayoral control and a powerful new school chancellor. But political infighting still lingers on the edges, and district leaders would do superscriptwell to look at cities like Boston, Chicago, and Raleigh, N.C., where school boards and superintendents have managed to provide stable leadership and sustained effort to move reform along.” (Stover, 2008, p. 16)

Stover, D. (2008, Nov). Reform school. American School Board Journal 196(11), 14-18. [ ]

Employees need to be motivated to act ethically and their superiors should act as role models to ^^superscripttheir subordinates by leading them towards ethical practices. (Atakan, Burnaz, & Topcu 2008, pg. 583)^^

Atakan, M., Burnaz, S., & Topcu, Y. (2008, November 15). An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Perceptions of Future Managers with a Special Emphasis on Gender – Turkish Case. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 573-586. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []

Leading organizations go beyond a “replacement” approach that focuses on identifying particular individuals as possible successors for specific top-ranking positions and engage in broad, integrated
succession planning and management efforts that focus on strengthening both current and future capacity. (Stalcup 2008, pg. 16)

Stalcup, G. (2008, May 21). Human Capital: GAO-08-815T. GAO Reports, Retrieved November 2, 2008, from [

Leading facilities management outsourcer Interservefm is to extend its mobile work order and asset management system to include remote technicians. Initally, the extension will cover three major contracts involving 350 users. (pg. 5)

Interservefm adds mobile capability. (2006, March). Service Management, Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []

Step one is to identify a few (hopefully nearby) leading Internet firms by reading publications like WiRed or Red Herring that cater to that industry. (Fisher 2007, pg. 167)

Fisher, M. (2007, March). Bob Hayes: Forty Years of Leading Operations Management Into Uncharted Waters. Production & Operations Management, 16(2), 159-168. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []

Management and Planning

“Within FEI, this has led us to refresh our strategic-planning process and ensure that we are focusing the organization on the key areas that will help us better serve our members and the broader financial community over the next several years.” (Abel, 2008, p. 6)

Abel, J. (2008). FEI strategic planning focuses on member needs. Financial Executive 24(8), 6. [ ]

We derive the clearing function for each work center by assuming that the planning periods are sufficiently long so that the queue representing the work center under consideration will be in a steady state (Kim & Uzsoy 2008, pg. 1187)

Kim, S., & Uzsoy, R. (2008, December). Exact and heuristic procedures for capacity expansion problems with congestion. IIE Transactions, 40(12), 1185-1197. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from

“Within FEI, this has led us to refresh our strategic-planning process and ensure that we are focusing the organization on the key areas that will help us better serve our members and the broader financial community over the next several years.” (Abel, 2008, p. 6)
Abel, J. (2008). FEI strategic planning focuses on member needs. Financial Executive 24(8), 6.

One planning instrument that has received a great deal of attention recently is the precautionary principle, a concept which has provided guidance on debates regarding health and safety, as well as on environmental and resource management issues. (Fennell & Ebert 2004, pg. 461) N=34736167&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Fennell, D., & Ebert, K. (2004, November). Tourism and the Precautionary Principle. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12(6), 461-479. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from


Once you have a feel for your client's life goals, financial goals, and family goals, draft out a strategy for gifting, estate planning, insurance, investments, succession planning, and the like. Create a team to develop and carry out the plan, or work with your client's existing advisors. (Sullivan 2005 Pg. 24)

Sullivan, B. (2005, April 2). Gift Now or Pay Later. Practical Accountant, Retrieved November 1, 2008, from


“Ongoing communication is the key. You need to keep persuading, keep acknowledging, keep the message coming to make sure the change sticks long enough for the benefits to be recognized generally. The other side of communication counts just as much: asking for feedback and listening attentively to the participants’ concerns and preferences. You need to make sure that your acknowledgements and persuasions are relevant to the needs to the variety and range of the people provided.” (Kislik, 2008, p. 50)

Kislik, L. (2008). Surviving changing times. Multichannel Merchant. 4(8) p 50. Retrieved on November 1, 2008, from
“Management is an ongoing process of seeking out more effective and efficient ways to lead and direct an organization” (Yeung, Cheng, & Kee-hung, 2006, pg. 158).[]

Yeung, A; Cheng, E; & Kee-hung, L. (2006). An operational and institutional perspective on total quality management. Production & Operations Management. 15(1), 156-170. Retrieved on Wednesday, October 29, 2008 from: []

“To help achieve this goal, the field of intercultural business communication should more strongly emphasize how to understand one’s own individual cultural identity: the sense of self derived from formal or informal membership in groups that impart knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, traditions, and ways of life.” (Jameson, 2007, p. 200)

Jameson, D. (2007). Reconceptualizing cultural identity and its role in intercultural business communication. Journal of Business Communication 44(3), 199-235. N=28378515&site=ehost-live&scope=site

“These winners, the best of the best, linked learning to business strategies, created a culture that encourages and instills learning across all levels of the organization, and developed learning initiatives that promote teamwork, leadership, and growth.” (p. 26)

Harris, P., Ketter, P., Nancherla, A., Laff, M., Llorens, J., Pace, A., & Salopeck, J. (2008). A passion for learning. T+D 62(10), 26-27. []

“It built on many of the structural and organizational aspects of modernity—especially of course in the use of the media and modern organizational methods for the mobilization of the masses.” (p. 137)

Amineh, M. & Eisenstadt, S., (2007). The Iranian revolution: The multiple contexts of the Iranian revolution. Perspectives on Global Development & Technology 6(1-3), 129-157. []

“Google is venturing in many new directions to accomplish the founder;' goal of organizing the planet's invitations, but its initiatives are usually hit or miss, and its current emphasis is on automated processes that are easily "scalable ' rather than investments that rely on human capital.” (Geck, 2008, p. 95)

Geck, C. (2008). Planet google: One company’s audacious plan to organize everything we know. Library Journal 133(13), 95. []

“Organizations are managed as a system, employees are empowered, focus is placed on customers, and a set of effective management techniques is adopted” (Yeung, Cheng, & Kee-hung, 2006, pg. 156).

Yeung, A; Cheng, E; & Kee-hung, L. (2006). An operational and institutional perspective on total quality management. Production & Operations Management. 15(1), 156-170. Retrieved on Wednesday, October 29, 2008 from: []

“Successful management must incorporate visionary leadership, external cooperation, continual learning and improvement, process management, employee fulfillment, and customer satisfaction” (Shams-Ur, 2004, pg. 413).

Shams-Ur, R. (2004). The future of TQM is past. can TQM be resurrected? Total Quality Management & Business Excellence. 15(4), 411-422. Retrieved on Wednesday, October 29, 2008 from: []

“All management systems need effective managers. A system of management can open a door, but a manager must walk through by himself; he must make a commitment to attain objectives and accept the consequence of not meeting these commitments. There is a constant search for the most efficient, results-producing approach to help supervisors at all levels perform their functions of coordinating the activities of others” (Deegan, 1967, p.16).

Deegan, A. X. (1967 Spring). Management by management, Management of Personnel Quarterly. 6(1) 16-20. Retreived August 23, 2008 from

In a recent interview Van de Ven and Zlotkowski purported that management education may be on the cusp of a pedagogical revolution with service learning being a preferred course design and pedagogical methodology (Flannery & Pragman 2008, pg.466)

Flannery, B., & Pragman, C. (2008, July). Working Towards Empirically-Based Continuous Improvements in Service Learning. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 465-479. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from []

Financial management in Australia has been shaped by the principles of "management for results" since the introduction of the Financial Management Improvement Program (FMIP) in 1983 as part of a wide-ranging public sector reform strategy (Hawke 2007, pg. 134)

Hawke, L. (2007, October). Performance Budgeting in Australia. OECD Journal on Budgeting, 7(3), 133-147. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from []


“Planning’s origins lie in the regimes of regulation introduced by governments in the twentieth century to minimise the negative externalities of urban growth and development (Campbell and Marshall, 2005). The decision-making procedures and processes of the 1947 planning system were defined in administrative and legal terms.” (Campbell & Henneberry, 2005, p.38)

Campbell, H., & Henneberry, J. (2005). Planning obligations, the market orientation of planning and planning professionalism. Journal of Property Research. 22(1) 37-59. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from


“When it comes to management, Walker and Brock believe in leading by example. They strive to maintain a strong and welcoming workplace where their employees will respect their leadership style. The sisters feel that their employees are their most important assets and keep them motivated with incentive programs such as awarding Washington Redskins tickets to the employee who sold the most products. Both sisters find that these programs infuse their workplace with a competitive, yet fun, spirit that fosters a positive environment” (Hands-on team…, 2008, p.28).

Hands-on team of sisters brings their passion to the business. (2008, June). Franchising World, 40(6), 28, Retrieved August 22, 2008, from Business Source Complete database.


“One of the very first questions that company decision makers face and answer is “Do we want to do outsourcing?” Many aggressive managers make the mistake of “jumping the gun” and immediately plunge into outsourcing without adequately performing due diligence, investigation and careful planning. A company contemplating an outsourcing arrangement should not just focus on the countries, cities, vendors, or negotiating prices but also on strategy formulation and the evaluation of potential processes to be outsourced [1]. It would be better to re-phrase this question and make it more problem-centric. There is an overwhelming number of questions that will need to be addressed and analyzed prior to deciding whether or not outsourcing is the right answer for a company.” (Kumar, Aquino & Anderson, 2007, p. 329)

Kumar, S., Aquino, E. C., & Anderson, E. (2007). Application of a process methodology and a strategic decision model for business process outsourcing. Information Knowledge Systems Management 6(4), 323-342. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from

"If you don't expect the possibility or even the likelihood of union interest in organizing your employees, you are already way hehind," Ahcarian says. (Berta 2008, pg. 106)

Berta, D. (2008, October 13). Fear of unions on the rise. Nation's Restaurant News, 42(40), 106-106. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []

1 Scientists conjecture that scale-free networks evolve following the self-organizing principle, where
growth and preferential attachment play a key role in the emergence of the power-law distribution. (Xu & Chen 2008, pg. 60)

XU, J., & CHEN, H. (2008, October). The Topology of Dark Networks. Communications of the ACM, 51(10), 58-65. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from [.]

Organizing drives in the United States must clear more than one hurdle: through them, unionists must win the right to hold a representation election, win the election, and then negotiate a contract with the employer. (Ferguson 2008 pg. 4)

FERGUSON, J. (2008, October). THE EYES OF THE NEEDLES: A SEQUENTIAL MODEL OF UNION ORGANIZING DRIVES, 1999—2004. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 62(1), 3-21. Retrieved November 10, 2008, []

Organizing your financial and family records can save you time, money, and trouble. Sort through the paperwork you’ve been collecting and move important permanent records, (Reynolds 2008, pg. 42)

Reynolds, S. (2008, October). PREPARING FINANCIALLY FOR DISASTER. Public Management (00333611), 90(9), 42-42. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []


“The results of this study reveal that team performance largely depends on the effectiveness of team coordination, leadership and performance control through behavioral attributes. Sales managers may implement such controls effectively by establishing coordination, training, and feedback process rather than imposing command and control policy.” (Rajagopal, 2008, p. 16)

Rajagopal, R., & Rajagopal, A. (2008, March 7). Team performance and control process in sales organizations. Team Performance Management, 14(1/2), 70-85. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

provide not only a financial incentive for patients to begin the most effective drug regimen but also back up that incentive with targeted communications that can keep patients and their doctors on track when it comes to controlling disease and driving down cost. (Dross 2008 pg. 32)

Dross, D. (2008, 2008 Fourth Quarter). The Drug Cost Gap and the Diagnosis-Prescription Connection. Benefits Quarterly, 24(4), 29-32. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []

I test for this by explicitly controlling for the exporter currency-U.S. dollar exchange rate volatility. Finally, the third potential explanation I investigate concerns agricultural export subsidies in the sample of G-10 countries. (Kandilov 2008, pg. 1036)

Kandilov, I. (2008, November). The Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on Agricultural Trade. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90(4), 1028-1043. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []

^^ Since the commission, less than one-third of state executives have perceived their agencies as subject to greater controlling oversight from legislatures. The perception of legislative oversight has declined over control and oversight. ( Burke Cho & Wright 2008, pg.530)^^

Burke, B., Cho, C., & Wright, D. (2008, November). Continuity and Change in Executive Leadership: Insights from the Perspectives of State Administrators. Public Administration Review, 68(6), S29-S36. Retrieved November 2, 2008, from []


“Because the selection of criteria of organizational effectiveness has important effects on the strategies that organizations pursue, it is important that the selection be done thoughtfully and critically. And as more and more organizations take on characteristics of organized anarchies, these critical questions will become even more critical for practicing managers.” (Cameron, 1980, p.80)

Cameron, K. (1980). Critical questions in assessing organizational effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics 9(2), 66-80. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Inspiration and Leadership

All managers need to demonstrate management in action or the ability to make things happen through leadership. Making things happen through leadership involves being results oriented, using and inspiring others to get things done, and assuming the responsibility for achieving key objectives. (McLean, 2006, p. 16)

McLean, Jacqueline (2006). Making things happen. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management, (55), 16. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from


Thus, visionary leadership is, in a way, reduced to a vision statement and a set of self-attitudes about it. We may learn that future orientation and a positive outlook on life are important supports for a visioning statement. All these things can be precisely measured. Ultimately, the gains of such precision must be weighed against the cost of reducing a complex concept, with great emotional appeal, to a mere shadow of its larger significance and import. (Meindl, 1998, p. 22)

Meindl, J., (1998). Invited reaction: enabling visionary leadership. Human Resource Development Quarterly; Spring98, Vol. 9 Issue 1, 21-24. Retrieved October 18, 2008 from


“Sustaining organizational improvements of any kind… requires both leadership at the top and empowerment at all levels…It is important to challenge individuals and teams to contribute their ideas—and then to recognize and reward those who have contributed to improvements.” (McLarty & Jeffers, 2008, p. 88)

McLarty, J., & Jeffers, L. (2008). Is your patient throughput sending out an SOS? hfm (Healthcare Financial Management) 62(7), 86-92. Retrieved on September 30, 2008, from


"Trust implies some level of risk taking because a power difference exists between the individual trusting and the party trusted (Brien, 1998); however, this does not imply that trust is a limited commodity."

Bernardi, R (2008) Social desirability response bias, gender, and factors influencing organizational commitment: An international study. Journal of Business Ethics. (81)4 pp797-809 Retrieved August 29 from

Tools to leading

“It's all about organization, efficiency and getting things done. As a tool for leading people through change, however, it misses the mark. In fact, when leading change, the last thing you want to do is manage your time. Instead, invest it in the people with potential to become change leaders themselves, and the returns you get may surprise you.” (Bradt, 2007, p. 28)

Bradt, G. (2007). Don't manage time, invest it in people. American Salesman, 52(7), 28-30. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Organizational culture

“Although considered somewhat superfluous and of dubious value for many years, the formation, molding, and reinforcement of organizational culture have since become one of the central concerns of firms in their search for effective management.” (Vallejo, 2007, p. 261)

Vallejo, M. (2008). Is the culture of family firms really different? A value-based model for its survival through generations. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 261-279. Retrieved August 28, 2008. From,

Grand Strategy

“Intended to provide direction for strategic actions, grand strategies are seen as the basis of coordinated and sustained efforts directed toward the achievement of a business's long-term objectives.”(Pearce II, 1982, p. 23)

Pearce II, J. A. (1982). Selecting among alternative grand strategies. California Management Review 24(3), 23-31. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from


“The term team implies a strong cohesive, complementary group of people who pull together in support of the leader's vision and aspirations” (Bacigalupo & Blattner, 2007, p. 209).

Bacigalupo, Arnold & Blattner, John (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develop executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 59(3), p.209-219. Retrieved on October 9, 2008 from


"Success isn't built on a whim or fancy. It's built on knowledge, best products, and sound ideas. Standards bring you the building blocks to help you move toward excellence." (Hirschmann, 2007, p. 21)

Hirschmann, J. (2007). Standards developments. Professional Safety 52(7), 20-23. Retrieved November 6, 2007 from

“The Business Rules Group (2000) defines a policy as ‘‘a general statement of direction for an enterprise.’’ In this paper, the term ‘‘policy’’ refers to a description of economic phenomena that could, should, or must occur. We distinguish among the following three types of policy definitions: knowledge-intensive descriptions, validation rules, and target descriptions.”(Geerts & McCarthy, 2006, p.37)

Geerts, G., & McCarthy, W. (2006). Policy-level specifications in REA enterprise information systems. Journal of Information Systems, 20(2), 37-63. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from


Efficiency and effectiveness are central terms in assessing business performance, yet the challenge for companies is to balance efficiency with effectiveness in business networks. Companies often fail to achieve differentiation and innovation in their surrounding networks, through dealing with efficiency and neglecting effectiveness. This article describes the term efficiency as a necessary condition or hurdle reflected in the company's operating margins, and "effectiveness" as the company's ability to generate a sustainable growth of earnings in its surrounding network. (Mouzas, 2006, p.1124)

Mouzas, S. (2006). Efficiency versus effectiveness in business networks. Journal of Business Research; Vol. 59 Issue 10/11, p1124-1132, 9p. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Carrot and stick

“American managers use the stick (numerical flexibility) to motivate workers rather than the carrot (functional flexibility including HPWP)…some managers attempt to supplement the former with the latter…This combined approach is likely to have spread both internationally and across industries.” (Orlitzky & Frenkel, 2005, p. 1330)

Orlitzky, M., & Frenkel, S. J. (2005). Alternative pathways to high-performance workplaces. International Journal of Human Resource Management 16(8), 1325-1348. Retrieved September 30, 2008, from

Rules and Regulations

The evolution of a globalization strategy appears to be initiated by a need to liberalize
rules and regulations both within an organization but also within a country that will lead
to eventual economic benefits. The adoption of a globalization strategy provides further economic benefit, but requires increased liberalization and the creation of what this paper terms a “hybrid organization.” (Groothuis and Akbar, 2007, p. 1).

Groothuis, A., & Akbar, Y. H. (2007, May/June). Organizational transformation—from multinational to global: An early dynamic modeling perspective. Global Business & Organizational Excellence, 26(4), (1). Retrieved September 6, 2008, from

Terminal Values

“Like Prentice (1987), the present studies suggest that psychological functions span the value-attitude-behavior system and that two primary functions are instrumental and expressive. The motivation underpinning the instrumental function of the value-attitude-behavior system is the desire to feel that one can competently and effectively control and manipulate the environment. As such, an object’s benefits to an individual holding an instrumental function are the object’s intrinsic qualities, means to an end, and ability to control the environment.” (Allen & Ng & Wilson, 2002, p. 112)

Allen, M., & Ng, S., & Wilson, M. (2002). A functional approach to instrumental and terminal values and the value-attitude-behavior system of consumer choice. European Journal of Marketing 36(1), 111-135. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from

Instrumental Values

“Values have been defined in a variety of ways, although their abstract nature and endurance tend to be central to most definitions. Rokeach defines a value as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach 1973, p. 5).” (Shrum & McCarty & Loeffler, 1990, p. 610)

Shrum, L., & McCarty, J., & Loeffler, T. (1990).Individual differences in value stability: are we really tapping true values. Advances in Consumer Research 17(1), 609-615. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from

“In this theory, "value" is given a particular meaning and usage. "Values" are derived from—are an outcome of—"process," i.e., processes that directly and importantly affect our lives.” (Frederick, 1992, p. 284)

Frederick, W. (1992). Anchoring values in nature: Toward a theory of business values. Business Ethics Quarterly, 2(3), 283-303. []

“Closely knit member of an organization are sometimes referred to as a “team.” On a broader scale, some companies see their employees as a kind of “family.” The implication in the use of these terms is that there are shared values at work, people pulling together in the same direction.” (Horton, 1984, p. 2)

Horton, T. (1984). Shaping business values. Management Review 73(4). 2. []

Strategic Alliance

“Although the importance of social hierarchies has been documented in empirical settings other than investment banking (see Podolny, Stuart, and Hannan [1996] on technology networks), more and more industries are in fact beginning to resemble the investment banking industry because the proliferation of strategic alliances and other interfirm relationships has made networks increasingly important aspects of competition (Gulati, Nohria, & Zaheer, 2000).” (Jensen, 2008, p. 741)

Jensen, M. (2008). The use of relational discrimination to manage market entry: when do social status and structural holes work against you? Academy of Management Journal 51(4), 723-741. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from


"Groupthink refers to the tendency for cohesive groups to become so concerned about group solidarity that they fail to critically and realistically evaluate their decisions and antecedent assumptions. According to Janis, this potentially fatal flaw in group decision making occurs when certain antecedent conditions, in addition to moderate or high group cohesiveness, are present. As shown in Exhibit 1, Janis (1982b) classified these antecedent factors into two categories; structural faults of the organization' and provocative situational contexts.^ These two categories of antecedent factors, along with group cohesiveness, cause groupthink, which is manifested by eight symptoms.' These eight symptoms of groupthink in turn cause seven symptoms of defective decision making that lower the probability of successful outcomes." (Park, 1990, p. 229)

Park, W. (1990). A Review of Research on Groupthink. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 3(4), 229-245. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from

Team Diversity

“Claims that diversity provides a competitive advantage should be tempered with acknowledgement of potential problems associated with increased diversity, such as lowered attachment for some workers (Tsui, Egan, & O’Reilly, 1992), and discrimination and harassment against others (Stauffer & Buckley, 2005). Given the growing diversity of populations and workforces, efforts to ameliorate these potential problems are critical.” (Bell & Kravitz, 2008, p. 301)

Bell, M., & Kravitz, D. (2008). From the Guest co-editors: what do we know and need to learn about diversity education and training? Academy of Management Learning and Organization. 7(3) , 301-308. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from

Charismatic Leadership

“We propose a unique frame of analysis where, on the basis of previous studies, we expect to find a relationship between charismatic leadership style, specific work-group identification, and several outcomes typically investigated in organizational research; in addition, we predict that identification at the work group level mediates the relationship between charismatic leadership and such outcomes.” (Cicero & Pierro, 2007, p. 298)

Cicero, L., & Pierro, A. (2007). Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: the mediating role of employees' work-group identification. International Journal of Psychology 42(5), 297-306. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from

Total Quality Management

“Quality management theories and practices created a paradigm shift from the traditional approaches
of management. One aspect of organizational activities that is undergoing significant change is the
process of ongoing improvement—the basis of all decisions made to improve organizational health”
(Adams, Gupta, & Raho, 2007, pg. 34).

Adams, A., Gupta, M., & Raho, L. (2007). Perceptions of management philosophies. Journal for Quality & Particpation. 30(2), 34-40. Retrieved on Wednesday, October 29, 2008 from: []

“Organizations have adopted new management philosophies, such as total quality management (TQM) and theory of constraints (CM) over the past few decades to replace traditional management (TM) thinking” (Adams, Gupta, & Raho, 2007, pg. 34).

Adams, A., Gupta, M., & Raho, L. (2007). Perceptions of management philosophies. Journal for Quality & Particpation. 30(2), 34-40. Retrieved on Wednesday, October 29, 2008 from: []

“Its application has been credited with contributing, in part, to the resurgence of both the competitiveness and profitability of many firms. During the George H. W. Bush administration, TQM was embraced by a number of agencies such as the U.S. EPA and the Defense Logistics Agency” (Emison, 2004, pg.57).

Emison, G. (2004). Pragmatism, adaption, and total quality management: philosophy and science in the service of managing continuous improvement. Journal of Management in Engineering. 20(2), 56-61. Retrieved on Wednesday, October 29, 2008 from: []

“TQM is the totally integrated effort for gaining a competitive advantage by continuously improving every facet of an organization’s activities” (Ho, 1999, pg. 90).

Ho, S. (1999). From TQM to business excellence. Production Planning & Control. 10(1), 87-96. Retrieved from Wednesday, October 29, 2008: []

“TQM and reengineering represent models that try to capture systematic ways of developing organizational learning through alteration of the context. Interventions such as total quality management (TQM) were developed; these interventions create a map of contextual enablers that attempt to ensure learning and create a successful context” (Glenn, Kezar, Lester, & Nakamoto, 2008, pg. 131).

Glenn, W., Kezar, A., Lester, J., & Nakamoto, J. (2008). Examining organizational contextual features that affect implementation of equity initiatives. Journal of Higher Education. 79(2), 125-159. Retrieved on Sunday, November 09, 2008 from: []

A Philosophy of Management

Biblical Integration

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